Correct the following statements.

1) Embankment dams are seldom used across broad rivers to retain water.

2) For the construction of earth dams na­tural materials with a maximum degree of processing are utilized.

3) The latest known dams were built of earth.

4) The construction of earth dams is a simple operation.

5) A blanket of relatively pervious material Correct the following statements. may be placed on the downstream face.

6) Hydraulic-fill dams are constructed by dumping the material from trucks into its approximate position in the dam.

7) Rolled-fill dams are constructed by placing selected materials in thick layers and compacting them with special equipment.

8) Parapet walls as an additional safety factor Correct the following statements. and as an element of freeboard are sometimes provided on the upstream side of the crest of an earth dam under 30 ft in height.

9) Any earth dam can be considered fully impervious.

Answer the following questions.

1) What is the profile of an earth-fill dam?

2) What material Correct the following statements. is used for the construction of earth dams?

3) Earth dams are readily adapted to earth foundations, aren’t they?

4) What may be placed on the upstream face?

5) What are the types of embankments?

6) How is a hydraulic-fill dam constructed?

7) How is a semi hydraulic-fill dam constructed?

8) How is Correct the following statements. a rolled-fill dam constructed?

9) What special equipment is used for compacting the fill?

10) What may cause dangerous seepage?

11) What may the seepage of the earth dams be reduced by?

12) How should we protect the upstream slope of an earth dam against wave action?

13) Should upstream slope protection extend from Correct the following statements. above the upper limit of wave action to a berm?

14) Why should the grass be planted on earth slopes as soon as possible after completion of the dam?

15) Why should berms be placed at about 50 ft intervals?

16) Can you name the most famous earth-fill dams in the Correct the following statements. world?

Make a plan and a summary of the text.

Language Фокус

Choose the right meaning of the words in bold in the text “Earth-fill Dams”.

1. allowance

a) содержание b) допуск c) разрешение

2. toe

a) носок b) основание c) зуб плотины

3. subject

a) подвергаться b) предмет c) подчинять

4. facing

a Correct the following statements.) лицевой b) облицовка c) покрытие

5. free

a) бесплатный b) освобождать c) свободный

6. sound

a) здоровый b) звук c) крепкий

Choose the words with similar meaning from the two groups and arrange them in pairs.

A. Retain, skill, homogeneous, edge, embankment, assure, save, failure, core, truck, procedure, equipment, indicate, cause, sound, shell, crack, position.

B. Fracture, guarantee Correct the following statements., heart, result in, side, uniform, action, place, lorry, hold back, apparatus, perfect, frame, depict, catastrophe, economize, fill, experience.

Match the words with their opposites.

1) broad a) distant
2) natural b) complex
3) primitive c) narrow
4) sometimes d) different
5) impracticable e) partially
6) homogeneous f) often
7) final g) initial
8) fully h) restricted
9) free Correct the following statements. i) man-made
10) careful j) practicable
11) close k) advanced
12) simple l) careless

Using the dictionary add as many words as possible into the table.

Verbs Nouns Adjectives
1. compaction
2. to save
3. completion
4. erosive
5. to protect
6. failure
7. to deposit
8. desirable
9. additional
10. allowance
11. wide
12. to check

Fill in the correct Correct the following statements. prepositions.

1) It requires … much engineering skill … any other type of dam.

2) It was necessary to transport the material … its final position … the dam.

3) There is a zoned embankment … an impermeable core.

4) This type of dam is best suited … earth foundation.

5) They dumped the sand … trucks … its approximate position … the Correct the following statements. dam.

6) The workers will place the selected material … thin layers and compact it … a roller.

7) The dam was 40 ft … height.

8) … any case they should provide dams … drains.

9) The usual failure results … the washing materials … the joints … the slabs.

10) The slope was subjected … erosion resulted … rainfall.

Translate the following Correct the following statements. phrases into English.

Задерживать воду, треугольник с широким основанием, обычное оборудование, плохо спроектированный, сбрасывать из труб, существенное количество, ждать осадку фундамента, уплотнять насыпь, использовать раздельно либо в сочетании, дополнительный надводный борт, на сто процентов герметичный, уменьшение просачивания, ядро из глины, близко расположенные высверленные отверстия, каменный каркас, задерживать дождевую воду Correct the following statements., строительное оборудование, объем водослива, защита верхнего бьефа, затопление плотины из-за недостаточной высоты надводного борта.

Reading Task: E