Classification of sentences

Three aspects of Sentence: structure, semantic, pragmatic — determine three foundations for sentence classification according to structure or semantic or pragmatic properties.

. Division of sentences into one member, two member sentences; complete and incomplete nominal/verbal ... is qualified as structural. It is important for classification to find a criterion which would connect structural Classification of sentences peculiarities with contents of the sentence. Modality in a broad meaning is such a criterion.

If a sentence is characterized by a predication, it is natural to use a character of predication for a foundation of a general structural classification.

Each type of the sentence is characterized by its Classification of sentences own structural peculiarities: word order; presence/absence of an interrogative word, form of verb mood; interrogationness of a verb form. Intonation also plays an important role, especially in General questions.

Quasi sentences got the status of a sentence only because they are able to substitute a sentence in a Classification of sentences flow of speech, possess the same intonational characteristics and have the quality of separateness. They can be included into the sentence as elements syntagmatically independent from the rest of the sentence not possesing nominative contents. They may have only implacable estimation.

Intonation plays especially important role in this Classification of sentences type of the sentence. Thus "John! " may be pronounced with admiration, hint, delight, disgust. Sentences have the ability to combine in the frames of one utterance. "Oh, hallo, Cliff.

Interrogative sentences. Interrogative sentences are characterized by special intonation, inverted word order and by presence of interrogative pronouns. The contents Classification of sentences of interrogative sentences is characterized by structurally expressed idea of informational lacuna in the knowlege of speaker or denotator of utterance.

The noted features may be presented in different combinations.

"How long do you propose to stay?" — here you find inversion, interrogative verbal form, interrogative pronoun.

The two main types of Classification of sentences interrogative sentences are: general question and special question. They differ formally and semantically.

The general question is characterized by the absence of interrogative words and by special interrogative intonation. The fact of obligatory inversion of subject and predicate is nowadays not accepted because questions of the type "You were fond of Classification of sentences her?" became quite a norm.

From the point of view of its semantics the general question may be characterized as a question of predicative contents. It contains interrogation about reality of links between the bearer of a property and a property itself.

Special question contains a question aimed at Classification of sentences receiving information of concrete subjective property. The demanded information is connected not with modal predicative plan but with its lexico-semantic contents. Interrogative pronouns which usually take the initial position are signals of demanded information.

All other types of interrogative sentences are modifications of these two.

Negative Sentences Classification of sentences. Predicative connection between subject and predicate may be denied and in this case a negative sentence takes place. Negation is the marked member of the opposition positive/negative. There is a special formal indicator of negation particle 'not'. Each of structural types of sentence may be positive and negative Classification of sentences.

Negative is a sentence with the negation of predication. This negation is general. It is located in the finite part of the predicate: "You don't understand at all". Private negation may be applied to any member of the sentence with the exception of the predicate:

"Not a person could Classification of sentences be seen around";

"I could rely on none in this matter".

General and private negations may be used as the frames of a single sentence:

"Helen is not a girl without no interests".

Negative-interrogative sentences. Sentences of this type have additionally to the meaning of question implicable meaning of Classification of sentences the author's supposition of probability of the action described. That is why negative answer to such question is in contradiction with the expected one.

"Didn't she take anything?" It is meant that she did take something.

Special questions can't be negative.

STRUCTURE OF Classification of sentences THE SENTENCE


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