Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир

^ Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по дилемме появления жизни. РНК-мир.
 

1. On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2003 Jan 29;358(1429):59-85
^ Martin W, Russell MJ.

Institut fur Botanik III, Heinrich-Heine Universitaet Dusseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.

All life is organized as cells. Physical compartmentation from the Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир environment and self-organization of self-contained redox reactions are the most conserved attributes of living things, hence inorganic matter with such attributes would be life's most likely forebear. We propose Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир that life evolved in structured iron monosulphide precipitates in a seepage site hydrothermal mound at a redox, pH and temperature gradient between sulphide-rich hydrothermal fluid and iron(II)-containing Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир waters of the Hadean ocean floor. The naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentation observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide precipitates indicates that these inorganic compartments were the precursors of cell walls and membranes found in Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир free-living prokaryotes. The known capability of FeS and NiS to catalyse the synthesis of the acetyl-methylsulphide from carbon monoxide and methylsulphide, constituents of hydrothermal fluid, indicates that Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир pre-biotic syntheses occurred at the inner surfaces of these metal-sulphide-walled compartments, which furthermore restrained reacted products from diffusion into the ocean, providing sufficient concentrations of reactants to forge the transition from geochemistry Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир to biochemistry. The chemistry of what is known as the RNA-world could have taken place within these naturally forming, catalyticwalled compartments to give rise to replicating systems. Sufficient concentrations of precursors Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир to support replication would have been synthesized in situ geochemically and biogeochemically, with FeS (and NiS) centres playing the central catalytic role. The universal ancestor we infer was not a free-living Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир cell, but rather was confined to the naturally chemiosmotic, FeS compartments within which the synthesis of its constituents occurred. The first free-living cells are suggested to have been eubacterial and Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир archaebacterial chemoautotrophs that emerged more than 3.8 Gyr ago from their inorganic confines. We propose that the emergence of these prokaryotic lineages from inorganic confines occurred independently, facilitated by the independent origins of membrane Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир-lipid biosynthesis: isoprenoid ether membranes in the archaebacterial and fatty acid ester membranes in the eubacterial lineage. The eukaryotes, all of which are ancestrally heterotrophs and possess eubacterial lipids Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир, are suggested to have arisen ca. 2 Gyr ago through symbiosis involving an autotrophic archaebacterial host and a heterotrophic eubacterial symbiont, the common ancestor of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. The attributes shared by all prokaryotes are Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир viewed as inheritances from their confined universal ancestor. The attributes that distinguish eubacteria and archaebacteria, yet are uniform within the groups, are viewed as relics of their phase of differentiation after divergence Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир from the non-free-living universal ancestor and before the origin of the free-living chemoautotrophic lifestyle. The attributes shared by eukaryotes with eubacteria and archaebacteria, respectively, are viewed as inheritances Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир via symbiosis. The attributes unique to eukaryotes are viewed as inventions specific to their lineage. The origin of the eukaryotic endomembrane system and nuclear membrane are suggested to be the fortuitous result Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир of the expression of genes for eubacterial membrane lipid synthesis by an archaebacterial genetic apparatus in a compartment that was not fully prepared to accommodate such compounds, resulting in vesicles of eubacterial lipids Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир that accumulated in the cytosol around their site of synthesis. Under these premises, the most ancient divide in the living world is that between eubacteria and archaebacteria, yet the steepest evolutionary Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир grade is that between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
PMID: 12594918 [PubMed - in process]

 Симбиоз автотрофной архебактерии с гетеротрофными эубактериями (митохондриями). Происхождение ядра: синтез "эубактериальных" мембран в рез-те экспрессии эубактериальных генов архебактериальным генетическим аппаратом Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир, в среде (цитоплазме), которая не была к таким субстанциям подготовлена; пузырьки липидных мембран накапливались вокруг места их синтеза – вышло ядро. У архебактерий другие мембраны (isoprenoid ether membranes) чем у эубактерий (fatty acid ester Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир membranes)

Возникновение жизни в микрополостях сульфида железа. Эти полости были заместо клеток. Поверхность минерала – катализатор. Когда появились мембраны, "это" сумело выйти наружу и жить без помощи других. Мембраны появились независимо в 2-ух линиях Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир: будущих Археях и Микробах.  Это 1-ое величавое разделение жизни. А самое огромное эволюционное преобразование (града) – возникновение эукариот.

Пользующаяся популярностью заметка об этой теории (рус.)

 
^ 2. The origin of DNA genomes and Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир DNA replication proteins.
Curr Opin Microbiol 2002 Oct;5(5):525-32 Related Articles, Links 

Forterre P.

Institut de Genetique et Microbiologie, Batiment 409, CNRS UMR 8621, Universite Paris-Sud XI, F-91405 Orsay CEDEX, France. forterre@igmors.u-psud.fr

 

In Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир recent years, it has became clear that most proteins involved in cellular DNA precursor synthesis or DNA replication have been 'invented' more than once, indicating that the transition from RNA to Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир DNA genomes was more complex than previously thought. Several authors have suggested that DNA viruses, which often encode their own version of these proteins, played an important role in this process Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир. The nature of the genome of the last universal cellular ancestor (LUCA) -- that is, RNA or DNA, prokaryotic-like or eukaryotic-like -- remains in dispute. A hyperthermophilic LUCA would have suggested a circular Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир, double-stranded DNA genome; however, recent data favor a mesophilic or moderately thermophilic LUCA.

PMID: 12354562

 
^ 3. Omnipotent RNA.
FEBS Lett 2002 Oct 23;530(1-3):4-8 Related Articles, Links 

Spirin AS.

Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир, Moscow Region, Russia. spirin@vega.protres.ru

 

The capability of polyribonucleotide chains to form unique, compactly folded structures is considered the basis for diverse non-genetic functions of RNA, including the function of Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир recognition of various ligands and the catalytic function. Together with well-known genetic functions of RNA - coding and complementary replication - this has led to the concept of the functional omnipotence of RNA Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир and the hypothesis that an ancient RNA world supposedly preceded the contemporary DNA-RNA-protein life. It is proposed that the Woese universal precursor in the ancient RNA world could be a Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир cell-free community of mixed RNA colonies growing and multiplying on solid surfaces.

PMID: 12387857

 

^ 4. Small nucleolar RNAs: versatile trans-acting molecules of ancient evolutionary origin.
Terns MP, Terns RM Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир.   Gene Expr 2002;10(1-2):17-39
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA. mterns@bmb.uga.edu

The small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are an abundant class of trans-acting RNAs that function in Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир ribosome biogenesis in the eukaryotic nucleolus. Elegant work has revealed that most known snoRNAs guide modification of pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) by base pairing near target sites. Other snoRNAs are involved in Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир cleavage of pre-rRNA by mechanisms that have not yet been detailed. Moreover, our appreciation of the cellular roles of the snoRNAs is expanding with new evidence that snoRNAs also target modification Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир of small nuclear RNAs and messenger RNAs. Many snoRNAs are produced by unorthodox modes of biogenesis including salvage from introns of pre-mRNAs. The recent discovery that homologs of snoRNAs as well as associated Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир proteins exist in the domain Archaea indicates that the RNA-guided RNA modification system is of ancient evolutionary origin. In addition, it has become clear that the RNA component of vertebrate telomerase Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир (an enzyme implicated in cancer and cellular senescence) is related to snoRNAs. During its evolution, vertebrate telomerase RNA appears to have co-opted a snoRNA domain that is essential for Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир the function of telomerase RNA in vivo. The unique properties of snoRNAs are now being harnessed for basic research and therapeutic applications.
PMID: 11868985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Есть особенные короткие РНК, которые Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир участвуют в мдоификации рРНК, т.е., короче, в формировании рибосом. При этом они есть у Эукариот и Археа (показывает на некоторую связь меж ними).

 

 

^ 5. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families.
Kyrpides NC, Woese CR.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998 Mar 31;95(7):3726-30 
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, B103 Chemical Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир and Life Sciences, MC 110, 407 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. nikos@darwin.life.uiuc.edu

As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.
PMID: 9520434 [PubMed - indexed Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир for MEDLINE]

Принципиально: факты в пользу того, что трансляция (т.е. синтез белка) присутствовала уже у "последнего общего предка", т.е. жизнь разошлась на полосы Археа, Бактериа и Эукариа уже на таковой стадии Цитологическая, биохимическая литература по проблеме возникновения жизни. РНК-мир, когда были белки, а не только лишь РНК




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